The Changing Face of Trades: Women in the Workforce

How many tradeswomen do you know? Think about it. Not counting hairstylists, you can probably count them on one hand.

Yet, recent reports show the number of women in trades is on the rise. The Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training Board’s 2014 Statistical Profiles report shows a steady increase in the number of female registered apprentices. In 2014, that number reached 6,302, up from 5,846 in 2013. Among 25 trades listed the largest increase in registered apprentices were for welders, heavy equipment technicians, gassfitters, and landscape gardeners.

Registered female apprentices in Alberta

Despite the increasing number of female registered apprentices, women still make up less than 9 percent of the total number of registered apprentices. Women apprentices are also less likely to complete a trade program then their male counterparts according to Alberta Innovation and Advanced Education. In the 2013/14 school year, 74 percent of apprentices completed all their requirements compared to 65 percent of female apprentices.

The Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives released its own report in July, 2015. It notes, “women’s education levels are higher then men’s in every area except the trades.” So why aren’t there more women in the trades? Ask different people and you get different answers.

Red Seal journeyman tile setter, Jill Drader (34), thinks the apprenticeship system is part of the problem and a major reason why there are so few women in the trades.

Drader is an experienced educator and coach. She earned her first degree in International Development from the University of Calgary in 2005 and later secured her journeyman tile setter and stoneworker ticket after completing the trades program at SAIT in 2009. Jill was then offered a position at SAIT, which involved curriculum development, instructional design, and instructing. In 2014 she was named to Avenue Magazine’s Top 40 Under 40 list for her work helping women get their start in the trades through Women in Work Boots.

“I truly believe that apprenticeship is a broken model,” Drader says. “You have to go get a job, have that person support you and then [convince them to] allow you to go to school.” According to Drader, it’s a system that poses a significant barrier to entry.

“Imagine we allowed those who have a strong desire to be in this industry to sign up, get trained, and then go out and get skills and get work experience as we do with every other sector. You would have more women signing up,” Drader says.

More skilled tradeswomen would improve the workforce by helping to address the shortage of skilled tradespeople, which continues effect businesses.

Another problem with the apprenticeship system, when compared with mainstream university or college educational systems, is how it relates to external market forces. Drader notes, when the market is soft and jobs are scarce, people often take that time to go to school and upgrade their skills. However this is nearly impossible in trades because nobody is hiring.

Women are excelling as trades.

Notwithstanding, women like April Valentine (30), a journeyman electrician, are changing the face of the industry through hard work and perseverance.

Originally from Hastings, Ontario, Valentine developed an interest in trades work in 2005 when she moved to Whistler, British Columbia with her then boyfriend. He was doing a plumbing apprenticeship and it started the wheels turning for Valentine who started thinking about doing her own apprenticeship.

April: Female trades who are changing the face of the industry
April is part of a growing number of exceptional female trades who are changing the face of the industry.

Then she saw a labour job advertised in the paper. It promised workers the day off if it snowed over a certain amount. “So I said, sign me up!” Valentine recalls.

After the winter season she moved back home. It was time to start focusing on her long-term career. She broached the topic of becoming a trade with her mom saying, “I wish that I could do that.” Her mom replied, “Well, why can’t you?”

So she started to explore her options, speaking to various tradespeople from carpenters, framers and electricians, evaluating which might be best for her. She settled on electrical work.

“I was kind of skeptical. I was thinking, maybe I can’t do this. Maybe it will be too hard,” Valentine admits.

Testing the waters, Valentine started applying for jobs. She sent out resumes and cover letters, but didn’t receive any replies.

“Nobody took me seriously,” Valentine says. “Some places I applied to multiple times. I got frustrated because some of my guy friends applied to the same places and got hired.”

Then in 2006 Valentine moved to Calgary where her luck changed. Within a week of arriving she had a job lined up. The company hiring was unique in that women workers formed the majority. However, if Valentine thought she’d get a warm reception, she was in for a surprise.

“They shunned me,” Valentine recalls. “They gave me a look up and down. They were cold towards me and weren’t friendly at all.”

She changed companies. Through a few twists and turns, Valentine finally landed at Dynamic Building Technologies, a commercial electrical specialist focusing on electrical repair and lighting solutions. She still works there today.

April working on an electrical project
April, electrician and project manager, installs nearly 200 upgraded lighting fixtures as part of a recent project in a Calgary warehouse.

“I enjoy getting up in the morning. It’s a very rewarding job,” Valentine says. How often do you hear someone say that?

Making the decision to go to school and get an apprenticeship has worked out extremely well for Valentine. In fact, she met her husband in trades school and together they now have a beautiful young daughter.

Valentine says she lucked out. The company she works for was very supportive about her maternity leave. It was a bumpy road through apprenticeship, but she thoroughly loves her job as an electrician.

Women face unique challenges.

Valentine thinks women who are considering a career in the trades can be scared away because it’s such a male-dominated profession. Not surprisingly, gender prejudices and discrimination are still a reality for many tradeswomen.

Valentine says it’s not unusual to be second-guessed by equipment salesmen who underestimate her expertise, or for clients to assume a male colleague is in charge even if she has seniority.

For Jill Drader it’s been even more overt. She once experienced blatant sexism when a group of workers began cat calling her from afar. Yet, Drader graciously points out that women face issues in every field, not just in the trades. A few bad apples can give a whole industry a bad reputation.

“Some select individuals, who are immature, rude and disrespectful, desire to maintain the landscape of what it might have been at one time,” Drader says, rather than adapting to the current times and “different face [of] the workforce.”

Kat Hassard (28), a pipe trades instructor at SAIT, says a double standard exists whereby women’s skills are underrated or overlooked by potential employers when men’s are not.

It’s something she’s experienced first hand. After two interviews with a company she had applied for, she was told that the company had never hired a female employee before and they were not sure how it would work. Despite the fact that she had the qualifications, she was passed over for the job.

“I was basically told to my face, that they weren’t going to hire me because I was a woman,” Hassard reports. “It had nothing to do with qualifications. It had everything to do with gender.”

As an instructor, Kat now spends 8 to 10 hours on campus in the classroom or in her office. She says she enjoys tutoring and mentoring students, preparing them for their careers in the trades. During the summer she works periodically to keep her skills current.

The industry is evolving.

There is no question that building a career in the trades is an uphill battle, especially when you’re facing roadblocks simply because of your gender. Yet, more women are signing up all the time.

“I don’t think this is a just trend, I think it’s a shift,” Drader says. “There’s quiet representation and power in numbers.”

Hassard says women need to support each other, whether it is in school or in the work place. “Use the buddy system. Find another woman that’s in the trades. Just having someone to vent to and bounce ideas off of makes a huge difference.”

Valentine agrees. She remembers the impact of having the support of a fellow student while attending classes at SAIT. “My first year I had a locker two down from another girl who was in fourth year,” Valentine says. “She said ‘Good for you! You can totally do this! You got this!’”

Electrical for lighting fixtures
April prepares the wiring on a lighting fixture for installation.

Now, Valentine makes it a point to pass on that encouragement to others.

“There’s immense opportunity for women and entrepreneurship in this industry, whether you finish the formal training or not, you can still own a business,” Drader suggests. “My core belief is that we will have more women in the skilled trades when we have more female business owners.”

The face of the industry is changing, and more women are stepping up to the challenge of becoming a skilled tradesperson. It may be daunting, but the opportunities are there for the taking. With over 250,000 skilled tradespeople expected to retire over the next ten years, Canada is already feeling the shortage of skilled labour. To say the industry needs women in the workforce is an understatement. It’s time for the construction industry to move past its boys-only mentality.

“If you told me ten years ago I was going to be an instructor or a teacher I wouldn’t have believed you,” Hassard admits.

“I love my job and I think more women can do it. I would just like to help more women realize that they can do it,” Valentine adds.

It’s true that change takes time. It takes patience and tolerance and a thick skin to make it in the trades, however the rewards are worth the effort. But the system can only be improved when people join together, arm in arm to make it happen.

Drader concludes, “It’s about being the change you want to see in the world, as Gandhi said.”

This article was originally published on

Shy girl takes off her clothes for art’s sake

You wouldn’t expect a girl who describes herself as an introvert to take off her clothes in front of a camera, but that’s exactly what Beatrix Mae has been doing for the past few years.

Mae began her modeling career as a teen with a focus on commercial fashion work. She had some success with Alberta publications like Vue Weekly and See Magazine, but fashion is fickle and if you don’t have the right look, the look that is trending, your prospects are limited.

Before long, Mae decided that mainstream fashion work wasn’t for her. At the age of 19, she decided to try nude modelling for the first time.

“I just found there were a lot of things I didn’t like about fashion stuff. It wasn’t the aesthetic that I like,” Mae says. “I do really like artsy-fartsy stuff. I like the kind of quirky and weird things, and I found that that goes hand-and-hand with nude modelling.”

Mae was working with Kevin Stenhouse, a Calgary-based professional photographer, one night when she decided to take the plunge.

“He was doing the Little Lamp project at the time, and so I posed for that,” Mae says. “I absolutely loved it.”

The Little Lamp project is a photographic series of artistic nudes featuring different models posing under a lamp. Mae had seen photos from the series and wanted to be a part of it.

The project kickstarted Mae’s love affair with nude modeling, which she sees as a way to express her creativity and reveal her true self for the camera.

“When you’re wearing clothing, or too much makeup, or when you’re really overly stylized, you don’t even recognize yourself,” says Mae, adding with a laugh: “With the nudes it is? just really bare. No pun intended! But it’s just you. It’s really easy to see that beauty within yourself.”

Mae says nude modeling has boosted her confidence and allowed her to move past the negativity she associated with the mainstream fashion business. At the age of 17, she was immediately told she needed to lose weight if she wanted a career in modeling.

“I don’t think that’s a really healthy thing to be telling someone that young,” Mae says. “There’s always a mold they want you to fit. They don’t really let you be you.”

In contrast with fashion models, Mae says nude models come in every shape and size.

“I like the idea that nobody will tell you, ‘No, you’re a little bit too heavy for this project,’ or, ‘You’re not tall enough,’ or, ‘Your nose is a little odd,” Mae says.

Many of the projects Mae has participated involve working with a single photographer in a closed, secure environment but on occasion she has posed for nude photography workshops. Doing a workshop means posing for five or six photographers, some of them complete strangers. Mae says this can be a bit nerve-racking for someone who is a bit anti-social, but having other models onsite helps.

Nude modeling is an art, but it’s also a business so workshops can be a good source of revenue. Mae’s standard rate is $100 per hour and workshops can last 12 hours over two days.

No matter the situation, as a professional Mae is always thinking about how to bring her creativity into the mix. This involves knowing where the light is, trying to create interesting forms and finding a rhythm with the photographer.

Much of Mae’s work winds up on the Internet. As a result, she has had to deal with criticism coming from people who don’t know anything about her but just have to offer their opinion.

“Some think I’m being oppressed or coerced into posing nude,” Mae says. “And then there are people who just think nudity is sexual and associate it with pornography.”

Despite the reaction from a few online critics, Mae says the people in her life are far less judgmental.

“I’m really fortunate that my family is all super supportive of it,” Mae says, adding, “My mom is super proud of me and says she wishes she had the same confidence I do.”

Since her first nude shoot, Mae and Stenhouse have developed a strong working relationship and friendship over the years. The two have collaborated on dozens of projects.

“The most unique thing about Beatrix is her versatility and her ability to be a bit of a chameleon,” Stenhouse says.

Mae adds, “I think we just mesh really well together. I will come forward with an idea and he’ll add to the idea and visa versa. I mean not everyone has that working relationship where you can collaborate. We just have personalities that work well together.”

Although Mae still spends much of her time in front of the camera, she has recently begun to assist Stenhouse with lighting arrangements and client interaction.

“The most important thing to me is that she’s making the person comfortable. They know that there’s someone there that has actually gone through it before and has experienced it,” Stenhouse says.

Mae has also begun to act as a kind of liaison between models and photographers by introducing interested parties to each other. It’s part of her plan to go beyond modeling into other aspects of the business.

This article was originally published by Notice Magazine in 2015


Why Safe Injection Sites are Needed in Calgary

Calgary is a jewel in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. With its high standard of living, bountiful job opportunities and great natural beauty people are migrating here in record numbers. In fact, Calgary’s population has ballooned in the last ten years from 1,076,000 in 2002, to 1,385,800 in 2012. A resilient job market has benefitted many Calgarians even in the midst of a worldwide recession. With many benefitting from a strong economy, Calgarians take pride in ‘giving back’ through community outreach programs. There are more volunteers per capita in Calgary than any other major Canadian city.  However, Calgary also faces serious social issues like homelessness and crime. According to the RCMP, addiction to illicit drugs like heroin and opium are on the rise.

Although many Calgarians are unaware of the problem, a number of concerned citizens and social workers have been working to reduce some of the risks that drug addicts face. Fatal overdoses and the spread transmittable diseases like HIV and Hepatitis C are a real issue. To combat the problem, cities like Vancouver, Quebec City, Montreal and Toronto have opened safe injection sites – called Insites – where drug users go to inject drugs in a safe, controlled environment. Shelly Tomic, a 40-year-old Vancouver woman who has been fighting drug addiction most of her life said, “We’re looking for that life preserver and Insite is that life preserver.” Unfortunately, Calgary has no such life preserver; drug users must resort to shooting up in parks, public restrooms and other public spaces, putting themselves and the general public at risk. Calgary should provide a safe injection site, thereby reducing the risks associated with injected drug use.

Critics of Insite point out the high costs of operating safe injection sites. In Vancouver it costs about $2 million a year to operate one facility, which is open seven days a week. However, the costs of not having safe injection sites are also worth considering. Taxpayers may pay even more if drug users wind up in the prison or healthcare system. When drug users do not have access to clean needles they will often share them with others. The resulting spread of communicable diseases, like HIV or Hepatitis C, often requires expensive medical treatment. Insite has been shown to reduce the spread of disease and thereby reduce the costs of treating patients. A drug user can be rehabilitated, but if they become infected with HIV or Hepatitis C, it is a lifetime affliction – and a lifetime expense for taxpayers.

Opponents say that safe injection sites simply enable people to continue what they are already doing – injecting harmful drugs. Admittedly, some research suggests, “drug-consumption sites merely serve to rubber stamp the use of illicit drugs unless they come equipped with accessible, effective drug-rehabilitation programs.” However, since the early days – nearly ten years ago – before rehab programs were available, much has been done to improve drug users’ access to rehabilitation. Debra McPherson of the B.C. Nurses Union noted, “Over 500 went to detox last year. Over 200 were prevented from overdosing accidentally.” Clearly Insite is not merely about enabling; it is about breaking the cycle of addiction and saving lives.

Those opposed to Insite insist society is sending mixed messages to drug users by appearing to support their habits. As Toronto police Chief William Blair said, “The ambiguous messaging that comes out of a society that says you can’t use these drugs, they’re against the law, but if you do, we’ll provide you a place to do it in.” Blair is not alone in his opinion; according to studies conducted in Ottawa and Toronto, many in law enforcement are skeptical of so-called harm reduction strategies. As one Ottawa police officer said, “We’re keeping them as addicts, as opposed to trying to get them to be former addicts, where they can once again contribute, maybe do some things that they’ve always wanted to do as opposed to being stuck in a vicious circle.” Admittedly, the lack of support by law enforcement is cause for concern, but police are focusing on – and sending – the wrong message. The most important message is: society cares about the health and welfare of drug addicts and wants to help them break their deadly addictions. By having Insite locations in Calgary, it would send a powerful message that Calgarians care and sincerely want to help.

Calgarians largely support progressive policies as long as they are effective. Worth considering then is Insite’s proven track record of success. The first Insite opened in Vancouver in 2003. City officials have had nearly a decade to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. Recently Vancouver’s mayor, Gregor Robertson, expressed his support of the facility. “Insite has proven beyond a doubt its value to the community.” Robertson is not alone in his support of Incite. When the Harper government tried to shut Incite down five of Robertson’s predecessors – Sam Sullivan, Larry Campbell, Phillip Owen, Mike Harcourt and Art Phillips – collectively sent an open letter to the federal government arguing that Insite should remain open. The research backs them up. It shows a clear reduction in the transmission of infectious diseases, fatal overdoses and continued drug use.

Calgary would be well served by opening an Insite. It is not a perfect solution, but an important move in the right direction. Illicit drug use is a complex and challenging problem. For some it is a matter of public safety, for others it is a matter of life and death. For Shelly Tomic, it was Incite that turned her life around and freed her from addiction. By supporting progressive social change, by petitioning local politicians, by being part of the solution, Calgarians will be saving lives. It is a noble cause, and as Shelly Tomic can attest, very achievable as well.